Waste Water Treatment Filter: The Ultimate FAQ Guide

In today’s guide, you are going to learn everything about wastewater treatment filter systems.

It covers basic to advanced concepts.

So if you want to be an expert in wastewater treatment filtration systems, read this guide:

What is Waste Water Treatment Filter?

This is a porous device through which wastewater passes to remove waste.

Waste water filter

The process of filtration involves the physical separation of solids or impurities from the water.

Normally, the filter aids in capturing the impurities that are contained in the wastewater.

The wastewater treatment filter can be used to produce drinking water or any other water used for other purposes.

There are many wastewater filters such as sand, cartridge, reverse osmosis, bag, and membrane filter among others.

Each of these filters captures and removes large and small particles, organic substance or metals from water.

Some may be used alone while others are used in combination with another filter to yield the desired result.

What is Filtration in Waste Water Treatment?

This is a process of removing suspended particles from wastewater.

It could be by straining, flocculation, sedimentation, or surface capture mechanism.

This process is very important because it allows the reuse of the same water thereby reducing the overall waste.

The wastewater flows through a filter that is made from layers of sand and gravel.

By collecting the impurities in the water, this filtration process enhances disinfection.

There are different methods of filtration like gravity, hot, and vacuum filtration.

All these help in removing solid particles either from the water or gaseous fluids.

What is Filter Bed in Waste Water Treatment Plant?

This is a layer made of sand and gravel located at the bottom of a reservoir.

It is also known as a rapid sand bed.

This filter bed helps in capturing solid materials that may be in the water.

The water flows through the sand, the particles come into contact with the sand, and gets trapped in the pores.

How does Carbon Filter compare to Activated Carbon Filter in Waste Water Treatment?

There are some differences in terms of porosity and the effectiveness of filtration.

For example, a Carbon filter is less porous than the activated one.

Activated carbon filter

Therefore, the activated carbon filter absorbs more contaminants and allergens than the inactivated one.

The activated carbon filter is made from small pieces of carbon that are either in granular or powder form.

They have also been treated to be more porous.

The inactivated one is a bit coarse and usually larger.

The activated carbon filter works faster and more efficiently than the inactivated one.

It does not require frequent replacement, unlike the inactivated carbon filter.

The more advanced activated carbon filters can sometimes be fused with magnesium oxide to remove hazardous compounds from the air.

This cannot be done with activated carbon filters.

The activated carbon filtering is done through a bed that absorbs the impurities from the wastewater.

In most cases, charcoal carbon filters effectively remove chlorine, sediments, volatile organic compounds, taste, and odor.

The activated carbon filters also prevent the building up of bacterial that may come up naturally over time.

However, both of these don’t capture minerals, salts, heavy metals, and organic substances that are dissolved in the wastewater.

In addition to these, they also don’t remove viruses and bacteria.

For successful purification of water, carbon filters are used in combination with other types of filters like reverse osmosis filters.

They are perfect air cleansers at home, in facilities, institutions, and industries.

The good thing with carbon filters is that it can be used to filter wastewater for a long time.

Changing the filter may be needed after 18 to 24 months of continuous 24 hours use.

This is only applicable in high demanding situations but is less demanding situations, it can be used for four years.

Other additional benefits of carbon filters are that it removes dust, lint, mold spores, smoke, pet hair, and household chemicals.

What is Trickling Filter in Waste Water Treatment?

These are filters specifically used to remove organic substances from wastewater treatment process.

It filters water through the use of an aerobic treatment system.

This process uses microorganisms to remove organic substances from the wastewater.

The organic matter in the wastewater is sprayed to oxidize.

They are then removed through the formation of a biological growth formed on rock surfaces.

Once this is done, the wastewater is allowed to trickle down the artificial bed of broken rock.

Trickling filters can be made from rocks, coke, gravel, slag, polyurethane foam, ceramic, or sphagnum.

Configuration of trickling filter

It is usually maintained by splashing or diffusion.

Sometimes, the maintenance is done by blowing naturally convention air through the filter when it is porous.

How do you Choose Waste Water Treatment Filter?

Making the right choice of wastewater treatment filter is a difficult thing to do although it is very important.

Many factors influence the choice of wastewater treatment filter.

These include the:

  • System application
  • Nature of wastewater
  • Level of purity you intend to achieve

The wastewater from industry, home, or facility is discharged from different applications.

For instance, some industrial wastewater comes from processed foods, cosmetics, chemicals, household waste among others.

Industries that produce food staffs like dairy products requires the use of membrane bioreactors in removing wastewater contaminants.

Oil and grease from these products can be removed through floatation.

Other industries manufacture metals like zinc, iron, lead, and nickel.

For this reason, industrial filters for waste from such industries require different filtration techniques.

This is because it will require a wastewater treatment filter that can remove heavy metals and chemicals.

How do you Filter Wastewater?

Wastewater can come from mining, tank cleaning, manufacturing, or other industrial processes.

Filtration is one of the numerous steps in the water treatment process.

Sometimes, filtration alone may be considered enough to discharge impurities.

In some cases, filtration may be used more than once in many steps during the water treatment process.

This is because other processes involved may create solids that may call for removal through filtration.

Wastewater is filtered by arranging many filters in a series and this helps in reducing the total suspended solids.

When the wastewater is pumped on top of a filter, the solids and other unwanted substances are trapped.

They are retained in the filter pores and clean water goes through to the other side.

The filters capture solid particles of different sizes like clay, sand, colloids, microorganisms, and organic substances.

The filters also reduce the biological and chemical oxygen demand, and metals.

Wastewater filtration process

What are the Stages in Waste Water Treatment?

Wastewater treatment is done in three main stages although a fourth stage may be required.

The treatment involves primary, secondary and tertiary stages.

The primary stage involves the removal of floating debris through filtration and small and large particles are removed through sedimentation.

A biological process is then used to further purify the water in the secondary stage.

The tertiary stage improves the water quality before it can be reused or discarded to the environment.

This stage helps in removing any inorganic materials left like nitrogen and phosphorus after passing through primary and secondary stages.

Lastly, water treatment that may require advanced treatment may go through the quaternary water treatment process.

Why is Filtration Important in Waste Water Treatment?

Filtration in wastewater treatment is very important for various reasons.

For example,

  • It helps in removing particles and debris from wastewater making it possible to reuse the same water.
  • The filtered water is also safe to be discharged into the environment since it’s no longer harmful.
  • The process of filtration is very important because it aids in treating groundwater which percolates through the soil.
  • Filtration has made it safe to use surface run-off water because through the treatment process, impurities can be removed.
  • Harmful chemicals and metals like lead are removed through filtration.
  • Some types of filters can remove even the viruses and bacteria from the water thus making it safer for drinking.
  • Filtration reduces environmental pollution since wastewater is filtered before it can be released into the environment.

Which Bacteria Can you use in Waste Water Treatment?

The treatment of wastewater is very important to human health because it will keep the environment safe.

Bacteria are widely used for treatment and purification of wastewater since it helps in speeding up the treatment process.

The bacteria that are commonly used are known as bacillus which is recommended for treating fats, oils, greases, and proteins.

What are Waste Water Treatment Filters used for?

There are many uses of wastewater treatment filters. These include:

  • Treating industrial wastewater that has been used during the manufacturing processes for various products.
  • They are used for removing of both small and large solid particles from the water.
  • They are also used to remove metal substances like lead and iron from the water.
  • Apart from these, wastewater treatment filters are used to remove minerals like nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater.
  • In addition to these, the filters are also used to remove fats, oils, greases, and other chemicals from the wastewater.
  • Filters also remove viruses, bacteria, parasites, and bad taste and odor.
  • They are used to reduce wastewater to smaller quantities.

Where can you Install Waste Water Treatment Filter?

Industrial wastewater treatment filter

When planning for the installation, it should be a plan that will work well without being compromised.

It must not also interfere with other operations for a minimum of 50 years.

The installation should be done bearing in mind the topography of the ground where the facility is situated.

Usually, it is good if the wastewater flows naturally to the filter.

Therefore, it should be installed in a higher ground so that it can be prevented from rain and floods.

The flow of the sewage should also be straight from the plant, home, institution, or facility.

This will help in minimizing the loss of land and also facilitate its flow consistency into the filter.

It should be installed a bit far from the city and network services with a buffer zone.

This buffer should be situated between the filter site and the residential area.

The buffer which should be green will provide accessibility of the operators to the site.

Also, the installation is done far from residential areas and cities to prevent the odor from reaching these areas.

The filter should also be installed near an electric source for ease of operation.

In addition to these, wastewater treatment filter should be installed in a place where it cannot compromise the city expansion.

Besides, it must not be installed in an area where it interferes with agricultural land laws.

It should also allow for future extension of the sewage collection network.

Lastly, it should also be installed near a valley or a stream where it can easily be disposed of after treatment.

Can you Reuse Waste Water Treatment Filter?

Yes, it can be used over and over.

Unfortunately, over time, the sand pores clog, and the efficiency of filtration is compromised.

The filter can be made useful again by carrying out a backwashing process.

Besides, the backwashing involves the reverse flow of water and air creating muddy water that is discharged into a storage tank.

When this is done, the filter is renewed and it can be reused to filter the wastewater again efficiently.

How does Membrane Filtration and Particle Filtration Compare in Waste Water Filter System?

Membrane filtration

Membrane filtration uses a thin layer of semi-permeable membranes like RO which has the smallest pores to filter wastewater.

It uses iron diffusion to reverse the solution’s osmosis process which helps in driving water away from the substances dissolved.

For example, radium, natural organic substances, pesticides, and pathogens are filtered through this type of filter.

The membrane allows only tiny materials to pass through it and the water is separated into retentate and permeates.

Also, the retentate is disposed of safely and water permeates that has been treated continues through the treatment system.

This can be reused in the house, facility, or production industry.

What are the Types of Waste Water Treatment Filters?

There are many types of wastewater treatment filters.

These include a bag, cartridge, reverse osmosis, sand wash, and multi-medium filters.

Let me shed more light on each one of them below.

· Bag Filters in Water Treatment

Bag filter for wastewater treatment

In small applications where waste is required to be reduced, a bag filter is recommended.

An elongated bag is used to pass wastewater.

The solids from the water are caught allowing only clean water to go through the bag.

Depending on the needs of the user, different sizes of particles are caught in a bag filter and housing.

Different bags have different size openings or pores which are measured in microns.

Sometimes, many bags can be used to facilitate the higher flow rate of water within the treatment system.

There are special bags for specific contaminates although, over time, the bags become clogged and ineffective for filtration.

When this happens, it’s advisable to change the bag and dispose of the used one safely.

You could also change the content of the bag and reuse the same bag with new filtration media.

This type of filter is cost-effective and accumulates less total waste than other filter systems.

However, the bag filter is not as versatile as other filters like cartridge one.

· Cartridge Filter in Water Treatment

A fabric or screen is used to trap particles and chemicals through the filtration process.

This type of filter is divided into two categories; surface and depth cartridge filter.

Particles are retained on the water surface through the surface filter.

The depth cartridge filter retains particles through a thick media.

This type of filter is very versatile and is recommended for many applications.

Cartridge filter for wastewater treatment

It is available in many shapes, materials, and ratings.

For instance, there is pleated, melt-brown, string wound, and membrane.

Also, available ratings range from less than 1 to 100 microns.

· Reverse Osmosis in Waste Water Filter

This type of filtration is ideal for applications that require the removal of dissolved solids.

It also facilitates the reduction or removal of very minute organic particles from wastewater.

Reverse osmosis is the most effective filtration system since it can filter contaminants that other systems may find difficult to filter.

The filter can remove 99.9% of salt and contaminants from various impure feed water sources like municipal and surface water.

The bacteria, particles, sugar, dye, and other impurities with a weight that exceeds 150-250 Dalton are blocked through reverse osmosis.

Reverse osmosis water filtration process

Sand wash water filter

This works more like a bag filter although it can handle more solids at a higher flow rate.

It is ideal for removing solid particles from wastewater by straining them from the treatment stream.

The water is pumped on sand filter vessel and as the solids laden, the water trickles through the sand.

Solids of 50 µm or larger are trapped in the pores between the sand.

Sand filters are usually made from two to five vessels.

The more the vessels, the higher the flow rate.

After several filtration processes, the sand gets clogged and this calls for backwashing or replacement of the sand.

The backwashing will flash the solids from the sand bed.

And the backwash can then be safely disposed of.

· Multi-Media Filters for Waste Water Treatment

This type of filter is similar to sand filter although it is more efficient.

It is made of one or two media layers positioned on top of a gravel bed.

The media are made with a decreasing porosity were larger, lighter ones are at the top.

Also, the smaller, denser media are placed at the bottom.

Moreover, the larger particles are trapped at the top media while the smaller ones are removed deeper in the media.

This filter can capture more particles as compared to sand for a long time before it can be back washed.

How does Ultrafiltration compare to Microfiltration in Waste Water Treatment?

There are many differences between ultrafiltration and microfiltration in wastewater treatment.

Here is all you need to know:

  • Both of these types of filtration use membranes to filter the solids and microorganisms from the wastewater.
  • They differ in sizes of the particles they filter. For example, the ultrafiltration membrane pore size is very small ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 µm.

On the contrary, the microfiltration membrane pore size range from 0.1 to 10 µm.

  • None of these filtrations can remove dissolved substances in the wastewater.

This can only be possible if they are absorbed with either activated carbon or coagulated with iron salt.

  • The ultrafiltration is used to recycle and reuse water that has no solids. This is not the case with microfiltration.
  • Ultrafiltration removes any contaminants, bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

On the contrary, the microfiltration removes the contaminants, parasites, and bacteria but does not remove the viruses.

  • Both ultrafiltration and microfiltration retains the minerals in the water.

When should you use Sand Filter in Waste Water Treatment?

Sand wastewater treatment system

Sand filter in wastewater treatment can be ideal in treating wastewater from small communities, residential areas, and recreation facilities.

Shopping centers and institutions also use this type of wastewater treatment filter.

It can also be used when you want a cost-effective treatment system.

This is because it is energy efficient and can be maintained at a cheaper cost.

The filter may be useful in difficult sites where other types of filter may be difficult to install.

When you need a provision of high-quality effluent, a sand filter is an ideal type.

In situations when the wastewater treatment system is malfunctioning, a sand filter can help in solving the treatment system dysfunction.

Extremely sensitive environments can use sand filters for wastewater from homes.

What is the best Filter Media for Waste Water Treatment Filtration System?

The best filter media for wastewater treatment is the reverse osmosis filter system.

It’s one of the strongest filtration systems and can remove up to 99.9% of the most dangerous substances in water.

It can remove heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides, chlorine, hormones, and other harmful chemicals.

When it is used in combination with an activated carbon filter, it can also get rid of viruses.

Why Choose Self-cleaning Filter in Waste Water Treatment?

The self-cleaning filter can be chosen because of many reasons.

The following are some of them.

Self cleaning filter

  • It has optimized components for environments that may range from carbon steel to titanium.
  • Normally, this allows for frequent testing thereby giving room for constant upgrade of the plant design to more durable ones.
  • This type of filter has a continuous backwash test which helps in guaranteeing high performance.

It also ensures the durability of filter components even during difficult conditions.

  • It can also be chosen because many facilities need an automatic solid filtration solution. For instance, universities, hospitals, data centers, desalination plants, and industrial cooling towers use this technology.
  • The self-cleaning filter reduces the total solid suspension in wastewater more efficiently and cost-effectively.
  • The filter process is also reliable, easy to maintain, and hassle-free.

Can you use Dish Filter in Waste Water Filtration System?

No, it cannot be used for filtering wastewater.

Dish filter is used in dishwashers and it helps in preventing the pump from being clogged by big food particles.

It helps in keeping the food particles remains from recirculating and thus restricts them from the utensils.

A dish filter ensures you have very clean tableware.

After washing away all the food particles from them with water and detergents, the dish filter ensures cleanliness is maintained.

This filter is applicable in dishwashers where plates, pans, and silverware are cleaned.

Is Backwashing Filter the same as Self Cleaning Filter in Waste Water Treatment?

No, it is not the same.

Backwashing is used for maintaining the filter so that it can be reused.

It is a way of cleaning the filter so that it can function for a longer time.

The water flow is reversed thereby facilitating the dislodging of trapped debris.

This is then flushed through the port valves’ waste line.

On the other hand, a self-cleaning filter traps the solid particles and is one of the most preferred filters.

This is because it has an automated filter, effective and cheap.

Are there New Filtration Technologies in Waste Water Treatment?

Yes, there are.

One of the new and economical filtration technologies is membrane filtration.

The membrane removes all the foreign substances from wastewater.

There are many types of membranes that are used to clean water from the surface and underground, and wastewater.

Ultrafiltration and microfiltration are the main categories of membrane filters.

The wastewater is forced through the filter membrane that has a higher surface area.

Also, the micro-organisms larger than the membrane filter pores are separated from the gas and water.

This type of treatment filter can be used to treat water that can be used for drinking.

It can also treat water that can be used in the industries or at home for washing purposes.

As you can see, there are many factors you should consider before choosing waste water treatment filters.

If you consider everything mentioned in this guide, you will obviously get the best waste water filters for your applications.

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