Sediment Filter Cartridge
Filson Sediment Filter Cartridge also named sediment water filter cartridge is used to efficiently remove sand, rust, gravel and other suspended particles from water.
It offers high purity and longer service time with the extended surface area and greater dirt holding capacity.
Filson Sediment Filter Cartridge
Filson Sediment Filter Cartridge is made of a variety of materials, including polypropylene sediment filters, carbon sediment filter cartridges, polyester pleated sediment filters, wound string sediment filters and many more.
Typical Filson sediment water filter is 5-micron pp sediment filter, 10 inches 5 micron sediment filter, 20-inch sediment filter, 1 micron sediment filter cartridge, or 20-micron sediment filter.
Filson Sediment Filter Cartridge, as a best sediment filter replacement to your existing systems or components,are available in most standard filter housings.
For example, Filson 5 micron sediment filter fits most industry standard 10-Inch filter housings.
You can also import our sediment filter cartridge with customized size.
Compared to other sediment water filter suppliers, Filson sediment water filter cartridges are manufactured with no resin binders, antistatic, lubricants or other additives and offer an excellent chemical compatibility.
Main applications are as pre sediment filter cartridges, RO sediment filters, sediment filters in water purifier…
With the Filson’s rich experience in sediment filter cartridge industry, we can help you remain competitive by being your OEM partner for the Filson Sediment Filter Cartridge.
Whether for standard, custom or high flow sediment filters, Filson offers a perfect solution for all market needs.
What Is Sediment Filter
Sediment filters are used to remove suspended solids, like dirt particles, sand, rust, from water as it flows through the system.
Sediment filter cartridges are generally made of polypropylene, polyester, cellulose, ceramic, glass fiber, cotton, and wound string. Below are two basic kinds:
- Pleated Sediment Filter
- Pleated sediment filters that capture particles on their surface.
- It has more surface area and need to be replaced when the surface is filled.
- Some high-quality pleated sediment filter cartridge can be washed and reused.
- 5 micron pleated sediment filter can trap 85% of particles that are 5 micron or larger.
- Wound string spun, melt blown cartridges
- They capture larger size particles on the surface and also smaller particles under the surface to the center core.
- 5 micron spun filter can trap 99.9% of particles that are 5 microns or larger.
- Therefore compare pleated sediment filters, they are in-depth filtration and replace more frequently.
What is a Sediment Filter Cartridge? The Complete Guide in 2018
I know you’d wish to buy a new sediment filter cartridge for your fluid system.
That’s why today I am going to tell you everything you need to know about these filters.
I tell people this every day – don’t just buy any sediment filter cartridge.
Go for a sediment filter with the right technical specifications, design, materials and performance characteristics. This way, you will reduce or completely remove all particles in fluid systems.
But, how can you do this?
Let’s find out – keep reading to learn more.
What is a Sediment Filter Cartridge?
Sediment filter cartridges are modular filters, usually installed within a housing unit in the piping of a fluid system.
Fluids in this case refers to both liquids and gases.
Sediment Filter Cartridge
In either case, the filter works by trapping undesired impurities within the fluid.
Depending on the type of cartridge filter used, they can trap anything from impurities visible to the naked eye to microscopic organisms.
Most cartridge filters lack a backwash mechanism, through which such trapped impurities would be sent down the drain.
A reason why cartridge filters are easy to replace.
Filters can be made of cellulose, cotton, polypropylene, and many other materials.
With this in mind, let me take you a step further and introduce you to some about sediment filters.
Sediment Filter Basics
Sediment is any suspended solid compound or matter that is found in a fluid.
It may be large enough or concentrated enough to be plainly visible. Or may be too small to see, not without microscopes and similar optical devices.
Sediment vary a lot as they could be metal compounds, organic matter, or microorganisms.
Water with/without sediments
In most systems, sediments are impurities that negatively impact the performance of the system, or alter products created by the system.
In machines, for instance, they may obstruct fluid pathways, compromise the integrity of the machines, gradually eroding surfaces it is interacting with.
Or, they may react with other compounds to create end-products that the machine or device isn’t supposed to produce.
If the said end-products are meant for consumption by humans or as animal feed, then the presence of such sediments may pose a grievous risk to the consumer.
Take for example, in one case in Bangladesh, harmful microbes were detected in worrying levels in soft drinks already in the market.
These were germs that could easily go beyond causing stomach upsets and resulting in fatalities.
In a similar vein, the USA has been suffering regular outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis.
A stomach illness caused by a parasite that could be limited in prevalence by use of a filter made of ceramic. It is highly effective in trapping really small microorganisms and particles.
Ceramic filter cartridge
Filters can also be found in vehicles, which have cabin filters, air filters and fuel filters.
The cabin works to ensure potential environmental allergens – pollen, hay, soot, and dust- are not drawn into the vehicle to pose a health risk to people in the vehicle.
The air filter and fuel filter keep out debris and contaminants so that the car’s engine runs smoothly.
When filters are not in place, or working poorly, the car is likely to start underperforming- consuming more fuel and failing to attain full power.
These could block components such as the fuel injector and result in costly repairs to fix the mechanical damage in the end.
By all accounts, it is far more cost-effective to replace the filter than engine components.
Sediment filters work by sieving and trapping unwanted particulates by forcing the fluid to pass through pores of a pre-set size on its surface, thus trapping the sediments as the fluid proceeds along.
Sediment filters are used in industries and homes.
In the house, you can find a sediment filter in your water filter, dishwasher, air conditioner, dehumidifier, clothes dryer, vacuum cleaner, range/exhaust hood and air purifiers.
Filter cartridge in its housing
Because the filter material is greatly compressed, cartridge filters tend to have a larger surface area for filtration.
Types of Sediment Filter Cartridge in Piping Systems
Based on their filtration mechanism, sediment filters can be described as either surface, depth, or adsorptive sediment filters.
· Surface Sediment Filters
These filters are usually made of some thin, permeable material, such as cloth, and trap sediment on the surface as the fluid passes through.
They are recommended when dealing with evenly sized sediment.
Because the filtration occurs on the surface, these filters are easier to clean.
That is, getting rid of the trapped sediment so that it can continue to filter with ease.
In certain cases, it can also be unclogged by shaking or some other means to dislodge the trapped sediment.
The bag filter is a surface filter.
· Depth Sediment Filters
Depth sediment filters work by forcing the liquid to pass through several layers of the filter material in order to eliminate debris.
As the fluid passes through these layers of filter material, the filter traps increasingly smaller particles.
By design, depth filters are meant to be disposable, for while the top layer of filter material may seem easy to clean, and may seem so after a rinse.
It is not possible to remove the finer particles trapped further within the filter.
· Adsorptive Sediment Filters
Adsorption is the process by which a compound or particle is attached to another by chemical attraction.
And, that is exactly how these filters work.
Adsorbents, the compounds used to bind unwanted impurities from the fluid, have inordinately large surface areas peppered with binding sites that adhere to the impurities.
A pound of activated carbon, the best-known adsorbent, has an estimated surface area of 40 hectares.
Once these binding surfaces are used up, the filter must be replaced.
Adsorptive filters are best for removing volatile organic compounds and can be engineered to filter out other compounds and chemicals.
They are usually used in multi-stage systems, installed after depth filters which trap compounds that would, otherwise, and needlessly, use up precious binding sites on them.
Examples include granular activated carbon filter and carbon block filters. Zeolite and activated alumina are also used as adsorptive filters.
Sediment Filter Cartridge Materials
The sediment filter cartridge material can be obtained from different sources, including:
Different types of sediment filter cartridge
· Wound String/Cord Cartridge Filter
By most accounts, these were the first cartridge filters, available in the US from ‘30s, and still widely used today, more than seven decades later.
As can be deduced from the name, a wound string (also known as string wound) cartridge had a length of fiber spun all around a perforated axle/core to create layers of filter material.
The earliest versions were made of cotton, wrapped around the core in a diamond pattern.
How the string is wound isn’t uniform; closest to the core, the string is wound very tightly together.
Wound String Cartridge Filter
As the string is wound further and further away from the core, the winding becomes spacious, relative to the winding at the core.
In essence, what with creates is a density gradient, where the topmost layer of wound string is fairly open.
And, thus stops only large particles, but, as the fluid moves further in, towards the core, the increasingly tighter winding stops increasingly smaller particles.
Because of this, the wound string filter is considered effective at removing sediment with varying particle sizes.
Using cotton as the primary material in wound string cartridges comes with the possibility of microorganisms colonizing the cartridge.
For this reason, synthetic fibers unconducive to the growth of microorganisms are used where such secondary contamination is undesired.
Previous generations of wound string filter cartridges were made using rovings and friction-spun yarn. But newer iterations are likely to be made using melt-spun fibers.
Friction-spun yarn filters are better than filters made by rovings. They are bulkier yet don’t impede fluid flow as much as cartridges designed by rovings do.
However, in both techniques, the fiber has to be treated with chemicals, which could then leak into the fluids passing through the filters.
It’s usually for this reason that, after installing some wound-string filter cartridges, one may be instructed to let to let the water run for a while before using it.
Of course, this is in situations where you want to use it as a water filtration system.
However, this leaching of chemicals becomes an issue if the wound string sediment filter is just the first stage of a bigger filtration system.
If an adsorbent filter downstream starts trapping these leached chemicals, then its efficacy in doing its intended purpose may be lowered.
Both also have comparatively shorter fibers, leaving them susceptible to displacement when in use.
Such displacement would render them inefficient in certain circumstances, as it creates gaps in the filter layers allowing sediment to pass through.
This is the phenomenon known as media migration.
With a melt blown filter cartridge, there are neither short fibers nor chemicals to worry about.
The filter material for a melt-spun cartridge is one continuous fiber.
It is made by heating a polymer to its melting point and extruding it to form fibers of the desired thickness.
PP Melt Blown Filter Cartridge
This process is controlled by a PLC system, allowing for changes in the:
- Tightness of winding
- Thickness of the fiber
- Thickness of the whole cartridge
By themselves, these polymers tend to be quite firm, and as such do not need a core like other string wound cartridges.
However, a core may be included to reinforce its structural integrity.
Depending on the polymer used, melt-spun cartridges can be very resistant to chemicals. A reason why they are commonly used in pharmaceutical processes.
Because the pore size is pre-set in the PLC system, and unalterable unlike traditional wound string cartridges, its pore size is absolute.
Media migration is thus eliminated, and since it is air cooled, and no chemicals are used in its manufacture, there is no chance for chemicals to leach.
Furthermore, because of this efficient design, the melt-spun filter cartridge has a greater surface area to filter fluids.
So, what does this imply?
The pressure drop that is experienced whenever a substance passes through a filtration system is considerably smaller as compared to the other methods.
This greater surface area also means that it can trap sediments even more efficiently.
· Polypropylene Sediment Filters
Polypropylene is a synthetic polymer with a low density compared to other plastics.
It is generally resistant to dilute acids and bases and is hydrophobic in nature.
It can be set into a variety of forms- non-woven, foam, pleated, melt-blown or nano-spun depth filters.
PP Filter Cartridge
It is susceptible to chlorinated solvents.
· Glass Fiber Filters
These are usually used to filter fine particles, say between 0.3 to 1 micrometers.
They are often made from borosilicate glass or quartz. It makes this filter biologically and chemically inert, in addition to being resistant to changes in pH.
glass fiber filter cartridge
They are designed as depth filters. It is because they form a dense fiber matrix.
They operate comfortably at very high temperatures.
Most versions function at 400 – 500 oC. The addition of binders such as alumina can raise the operating temperature to an astounding 1000 oC.
· Ceramic Filters
These are depth filters usually made from diatomaceous earth, whose primary component is silica.
Diatomaceous earth is subjected to high temperatures to form either a ceramic filter candle or cartridge.
Ceramic Sediment Filter Cartridge
It is usually used to filter out microorganisms. Besides, it is often impregnated with silver to arrest the growth of these trapped microorganisms.
They can be reused several times by brushing off the top layer before having to be replaced.
· Cellulose Filters
Made from plant cellulose fibers, these filters can be described as either quantitative or qualitative.
Pleated Cellulose Sediment Cartridge Filters
As a natural product, one of their main advantage is that they are biodegradable. Besides, they are also recyclable.
Its fibers create a random matrix that through which a fluid is filtered.
Filters made of multiple materials- such as a polypropylene core, a polyester layer and pleated cellulose surface exist.
Such filters combine the different advantages each material possesses, resulting in an even more durable filter.
How a Sediment Filter Works
A sediment filter works by presenting a barrier to particles of a given size flowing within the fluid.
Based on how the fluid enters and exits the filters, sediment filters can be broadly described as either axial or radial flow filters.
a) Axial Flow Sediment Filters Cartridge
With these sediment filters, the fluid moves from one end of the filter cartridge and exits via the other end.
In this design, the filter material, such as granulated activated carbon, is located between these two ends.
And loosely packed to allow the fluid to pass through.
As the fluid moves along the axis of the filter, the filter material then traps sediment.
Axial Flow Sediment Filter Cartridge
One of its biggest drawbacks is that the configuration of filter materials may allow the creation of fluid channels that bypass filtration.
b)Radial Flow Sediment Filter Cartridge
These are the filters you are likely to encounter, e.g. wound string filters.
Here, instead of the fluid moving from end to end as in axial filters, the fluid moves in from the walls of the filter into the core, and on to the outlet.
Radial Flow Sediment Filter Cartridge
As illustrated, in radial flow, fluid only moves into the core from the sides, forcing it to pass through layers of filter material
As aforementioned, the walls of these filters are usually of varying thickness.
They trap progressively smaller particles as the fluid moves further towards the core/axis of the filter.
By some estimates, radial flow filters have a surface area 15 times as large as similar sized axial flow filters.
Making them considerably more efficient at trapping sediment.
Step-by-step Sediment Filter Replacement Process
As aforementioned, most cartridge filters are designed to be replaceable. The replacement process is fairly straightforward.
- Before commencing the replacement process set up a means to collect the fluid that will likely splash out during the replacement process.
A bucket or rug set under the filter may suffice.
Also make sure you have a compatible replacement filter at hand, and personal protective equipment if necessary.
- Turn off the fluid supply to stop fluid entering the filtering unit. This could be as simple as switching off the water supply in a home filtration system.
- The next step is to press the pressure release button located on the head of the filter (see image below).
As the name implies, this relieves the cartridge of any pent-up pressure so that its content isn’t explosively released later on.
disassembling sediment filter cartridge
- If your filter came with a filter wrench, slide it in place and start unscrewing the housing (see image above). By moving it in a clockwise motion. Even without the wrench, it should be possible to loosen the housing by this motion.
The filter may be heavy. So, it is advisable to loosen it a bit, and then use both hands. With one hand on the base of the casing and the other unscrewing it.
- Once the housing has been freed, remove the O – Ring and set it aside. Discard the other contents of the housing, including the used cartridge.
In the case of a carbon filter, confirm that the white washer at the bottom of the housing has been removed; it tends to stick.
- Clean the empty housing unit thoroughly- in some cases you may use water, bleach and scrub. Rinse repeatedly either way.
- Wipe the O- Ring and add the appropriate grease (such as silicon grease). Reseat the ring atop the housing, making sure level in its groove.
This serves as the gasket that seals the connection between the head and the housing; if improperly set, the filter becomes ineffective.
- Fit the replacement cartridge in the cleaned housing, and make sure it is properly oriented.
In a carbon filter, for instance, the bottom end of the cartridge is marked by a white washer (end cap), while its top end is marked by a black washer.
The standpipe, the tiny piece of plastic jutting upwards from the base of the housing, should fit within the washer.
- Screw the housing back into the head, ensuring that the cartridge within remains properly aligned.
Tighten the housing into place with your hand, but do not overdo it.
- Slowly restore fluid supply into the filter.
- Ascertain that there are no leaks.
Technical Specification of a Sediment Filter
Before you buy a sediment filter cartridge, you should consider the following key specifications:
i. Micron Rating
Probably the most important specification of any sediment filter is its micron rating.
This rating is an indicator of its ability to reject particles of the stated size.
A micron is 0.000001 meters. The smaller the micron rating, the more efficient the filter is at removing infinitesimally tinier particles.
Common sediment filters have a micron rating between 1 and 50.
Though there are filters in the market that go below or above this range.
To explain the micron rating, let’s take the case of a filter rated ‘5 microns’.
Such a filter should remove particles that are 5 microns in size or larger.
They may include, fine silt, rust and suspended solids.
It should also be able to filter out particles like:
- Red blood cells (about 8 microns in size)
- Fertilizer (>10 microns)
- Some cement dust
- Pollen and such large contaminants
Anything smaller than 5 microns, such as viruses (<0.3 microns), or some bacteria, or particles suspended in a colloidal state (<1 micron), will pass through the filter unimpeded.
But, I want you to note this:
There are two important variations of the micron rating, a nominal micron rating and an absolute micron rating.
A nominal micron rating, is an indicator of the relative efficiency of the filter in use.
It is given as a percentage of the estimated fraction of sediment of the specified size it can capture.
Fluid flowing through the filter – Source: Machinery Lubrication
Most nominally rated filters have an efficiency of 85% (set by the Water Quality Association).
However, the nominal micron rating may range from 50% to 90%.
So, if a filter is described as having a nominal micron rating of 85% at 5 microns – this is what it implies.
It is expected to trap, at most, 85% of particles 5 microns or larger.
The absolute micron rating, is given to filters that have been tested in a controlled setting using fluids with measurable amounts of particulates.
The tests conducted are either single or multiple-pass.
And, the number of particles detected after filtration determines its absolute micron rating.
To be certified with an absolute micron rating, the filter should be able to stop 99.9% of the particulates from passing through.
Simply put, this is the volume of fluid that passes through a given surface per every unit of time.
Its unit of measurement is in gallons per minute (GPM) or litres per minutes (LPM).
This rate is important in facilitating the ability of the sediment filter to block sediment.
As a general rule of thumb, the smaller the micron rating, the lower the flow rate needs to be.
It is a principle that applies with regard to the size of the cartridge.
The type of filter cartridge in use also determines the flow rate, with adsorptive filters requiring slower flow rates than other filters.
It is to enhance the contact time between the adsorbent and the fluid.
Because of these variables, most filter cartridges have the ideal flow rate stated in the product specifications. It is to ensure the cartridge filter functions at an optimum state.
Below is a table showing suggested flow rates for filters of different sizes and micron ratings.
However, if your filter comes with a flow rate from the manufacturer, use that.
|9.75 x 2.5
|20 x 2.5
|10 x 4.5
|20 x 4.5
|11 LPM/ 3 GPM
|23 LPM/ 6 GPM
|30 LPM/ 8 GPM
|45 LPM/ 12 GPM
|15 LPM/ 4 GPM
|30 LPM/ 8 GPM
|38 LPM/ 10 GPM
|57 LPM/ 15 GPM
|26 LPM/ 7 GPM
|53 LPM/ 14 GPM
|57 LPM/ 15 GPM
|95 LPM/ 25 GPM
|30 LPM/ 8 GPM
|61 LPM/ 16 GPM
|57 LPM/ 15 GPM
|95 LPM/ 25 GPM
|38 LPM/ 10 GPM
|76 LPM/ 20 GPM
|57 LPM/ 15 GPM
|95 LPM/ 25 GPM
iii. Differential Pressure
This is the drop in fluid pressure after the fluid has passed through the sediment filter.
Filters can be fitted with a gauge to monitor the differential pressure.
Of course, this is between the point at which the fluid enters the filter and the point at which it exits the filter.
So for example:
If before the filter the fluid has a pressure of 200 psi. Then after the filter pressure is 180 psi – the differential pressure is 20 psi.
The differential pressure tends to increase as the micron rating decreases.
The lower the differential pressure of a filter, the more desirable it is.
As more sediment accumulates in the filter, thus obstructing flow even more, the differential pressure increases.
Because of this characteristic, the differential pressure can be used to determine when the sediment filter cartridge needs replacement.
Typically, when a bag filter has a differential pressure of 10-12 psi, it needs replacing/cleaning.
For typical cartridge filters, a differential pressure of 15-35 strongly implies that it needs replacing.
The specific limit is usually provided by the manufacturer.
Similarly, if an attached differential pressure gauge doesn’t indicate any change in pressure, it could suggest a problem in the filtration unit.
It could be that the housing unit has not been properly sealed.
Hence rendering the gauge useless, or that the filter cartridge is somehow damaged, allowing fluid to pass through unhindered.
Both situations would require remedying using the appropriate actions.
This is the temperature range within which the sediment filter should be used. Operating it outside this range can result in the filter failing.
Generally, lowering the temperature causes materials to contract while raising the temperature causes the material to expand.
If these changes are beyond the filter’s threshold, then it can fail.
For instance, polypropylene becomes increasingly brittle as the temperature approaches freezing.
So using it at these low temperatures can cause the filter material to suffer physical damage and thus be rendered useless.
Similarly, at high temperatures, the expansion of filter components may result in the loosening of the filter unit. As a result, this will compromise its ability to filter effectively.
Furthermore, in the case of a polypropylene filter, higher-than-ideal temperatures would make it susceptible to oxidation by organic solvents
The dimension of a sediment filter cartridge often is the measure of its cartridge. That is, its length against its diameter, often given in inches in standard filters.
There are two types of dimensions, actual and nominal.
The actual dimension is the true dimension of the filter cartridge. While the nominal dimension is rounded off measure obtained from the actual dimension.
Let me illustrate this for you to understand.
A sediment filter cartridge may have, on its packaging, a stated nominal measure of 10” x 2.5”, but the filter, if measured, may measure 9⅞” x 2¼”, its actual dimensions.
The difference may be as little as an eighth of an inch, or as large as half an inch between the two.
The nominal value in this case is more instructive.
That is, it is informing the user about the housing units that the cartridge is compatible with, as the values are standardized.
Standard nominal dimensions include (10/20)” x (2.5/3/5)”.
vi. Surface Area
The surface area of a filter cartridge is the total exposed area of the cartridge’s filter material in contact with the fluid to be filtered.
Cartridges that work solely as surface filters, especially those with a pleated surface, tend to have a greater surface area. Of course, if you compare them with the depth filters of similar dimensions.
Sediment filters are varied and versatile. And as you have seen, they are useful in limiting the presence of undesired particles.
You can use them in homes, industries, construction sites, in farms and many other locations.
And to make it easy for you to buy a sediment filter, I have illustrated everything in this guide.
Still, if you feel you have not understood any concept about any sediment filter cartridge, feel free to contact us.
At FilSon Filters, we strive to achieve a contamination free fluid system.
Features of Filson Sediment Filter Cartridge
- Fit In Most Standard Filter Housings
- A Variety Of Material and Micron Sizes Available
- Ideal for Using As Pretreatment and RO System
- Optimized Cartridge Structure for Consistent Filtration Efficiency
- Meets the Requirements of FDA for Food and Beverage
- Free of Surfactants, Binders and Adhesives
- Protect Pipes and Equipment From Damage and Dirt Buildup.
- High Dirt-Holding Capacity for Extended Life and Fewer Changeouts
Applications of Filson Sediment Filter Cartridge
- Water Purification
- Pre-Reverse Osmosis
- Food & Beverage
- Metal Finishing
- Oil & Gas
- Pulp & Paper
- Fine Chemicals